A Critical Review of Antecedents of Entrepreneurship Intention

  • Austin Mwange ZCAS University
Keywords: antecedents, entrepreneurship, in-group collectivism, intention, locus of control, need for achievement, perceived support, power distance, risk-taking propensity, self-efficacy


This is article is a critical examination of the antecedents of entrepreneurship intentions. A critical analysis of research on entrepreneurship has reveals that for one to be an entrepreneur or not, there are a variety of antecedents and the following as predominant factors; economic, demographic, environmental, psychological and social cultural factors, perception of opportunities, social cultural environment, self-efficacy, lack of competency barrier, fear of failure, perceived support, gender, family factors, perceived barriers and personality factors among others. It is these antecedents that this article examines critically


Download data is not yet available.


Adler, M., and Ziglio, E., (1996). (eds). Gazing into the Oracle. The Delphi Method & its Application to Social Policy. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Agboli, M & Ukaegbu, C. C. (2006). Business Environment & Entrepreneurial Activity in Nigeria: Implications for Industrial Development. Journal of Modern African Studies, 44, 1:1-30.

Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes & Predicting Social Behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behaviour. In J. Kuhi & J. Beckmann (Eds.). Action-control: From cognition to behaviour (pp. 11-39).

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour & Human Decision Processes, 50:179-211.

Ajzen, I., & Driver, B. L. (1991). Prediction of Leisure Participation from Behavioural, Normative, & Control Beliefs: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Leisure Sciences, 13:185-204.

Akhter, R., Sumi, F.R. (2014). Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Activities: A Study on Bangladeshi. IOSR Journal of Business & Management .16 (9): 01-10.

Alain, F., Benoit, G., & Clerc Narjisse, L. (2006). Effect & Counter-effect of
Allen, E., & Seaman, C. A. (2007). Likert Scales and Data Analyses. Quality Progress. 40: 64-65.

Awang, A., Ibrahim, I.I., Ayub, S.A (2014). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Career: Experience of Polytechnic Students. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business & Economics. 2(1):21-40.

Aykol, S., Gurbuz, G. (2008). Entrepreneurial Intentions of Young Educated Public in Turkey. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 4:47-55.

Babbie, E.R. (2008). The Basics of Social Research, 4th edition, Belmont: Wadsworth.
Bae, T.J., Qian, S., Miao, C., Fiet, J.O. (2014).The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Education & Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Meta-Analytic Review. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 38 (2):217-254.

Bagozzi, R., Baumgartner, H., & Yi, Y. (1998) Goal-directed emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12: 1—16.
Bagozzi, R.P. (1992). The Self-Regulation of Attitudes, Intentions & Behaviour. Social Psychology Quarterly. 55: 178–204.

Bamber, D., Owens, J., Davies, J. & Suleman, A. (2002). Enabling the Emergent Entrepreneurial Organisation to Develop New Products. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research. 8 (4):203-21.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York, NY, General Learning Press.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist. 37: 122-147.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Baron, R.A. (2004). The Cognitive Perspective: A Valuable Tool for Answering Entrepreneurship’s Basic ‘Why’ Questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2):221-239.

Baron, R.A., (1998). Cognitive Mechanisms in Entrepreneurship: Why & When Entrepreneurs Think Differently Than Other People, Journal of Business Venturing,13(4):275-294.

Barringer, B. R. (2008). Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, Pearson Education India.

Baruch, Y. (2004). Managing Careers, Pearson, Harlow.

Basu, A. & Virick, M. (2008). Assessing Entrepreneurial Intentions amongst Students: A Comparative Study. Paper presented at 12th Annual Meeting of the National Collegiate Inventors & Innovators Alliance. Dallas, USA.

Baughn, C.C., Cao, J. S. R., Le, L. L. M., Lim, V. A., & Neupert, K.E. (2006). Normative, Social And Cognitive Predictors of Entrepreneurial Interest in China, Vietnam and the Philippines. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 11 (1), 57-77.

Bawuah, K., Buame., S. & Hinson, R. (2006). Reflections on Entrepreneurship Education in African Tertiary Institutions. Acta Commercii, 1-8.

Brewer, P. & Venaik, S. (2011). Individualism-collectivism in Hofstede & GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(3):436-445.

Bridge, S., O’Neill, K. & Cromie, S. (1998). Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship, & Small Business. Hampshire: McMillan Business.

Brockhaus R.H, Hills G.E, Klandt H.& Welsch P. (2001). Entrepreneurship Education: A Global View. Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot.

Buttar, H.M. (2015). Formation of Entrepreneurial Career Intentions: The Role of Sociocognitive Factors. Journal of Employment Counselling. 52(1):2-17.
Byabashaijia, W., Katono, I., Isabalija, R. (2010). The Impact of College Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Attitudes & Intention to Start a Business in Uganda. Paper submitted to entrepreneurship in Africa Conference, Syracuse, NY

Bygrave, W. D. (1989). The Entrepreneurship Paradigm: A Philosophical Look at its Research Methodologies. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 14(1):7-26.

Chem, S. C., Jing, L. L., & Sung, M. (2012). University Students Personality Traits & Entrepreneurial Intention: Using Entrepreneurship & Entrepreneurial Attitude as Mediating Variable. International Journal of Economic Research, 3(3):76-82.

Chen, G.C., Crick, A. & Greene, P.G. (1998). Does Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Distinguish Entrepreneurs from Managers? Journal of Business Venturing. 13 (4): 295- 317.

Coe R. (2002). It's the Effect Size, Stupid: What “Effect Size” Is & Why it is
Crant, M.J. (1996). The Proactive Personality Scale as a Predictor of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 34:42–49.

Dana, L.P. (1992). Entrepreneurial Education in Europe. Journal of Education for Business. 68(2):74-78.

Davidsson , P. (1995). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Paper prepared for the RENT IX Workshop, Piacenza, Italy, Nov. 23-24.

Drucker, P.F. (1985). Innovation & Entrepreneurship. London: William Heinmann.

Falck, O., Heblich, S., & Luedemann, E. (2012). Identity & Entrepreneurship: Do School Peers Shape Entrepreneurial Intentions? Small Business Economics, 39(1):39- 59.

Falkäng, J., Alberti, F. (2000). The Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education. Industry & Higher Education. April:101-108.

Grundsten, H. (2004). Entrepreneurial Intention & Entrepreneurial Environment: A Study of Technology-Based New Venture Creation. Doctoral Dissertation. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.

Hamidi, D.Y., Wennburg, K., & Berglund H., (2008). Creativity in Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship Development. 15 (2): 304-320.

João, J. C.S.M.Daniela N. F., & Rodrigues, G.R.G. (2012). Entrepreneurship Education. Education & Training, 54(8/9):657-672.

Johannisson, B., Landstrom, H., & Rosenberg, J. (1998). University Training For Entrepreneurship – An Action Frame of Reference. European Journal of Engineering Education, 23(4):477-496.

Johnson, B. R. (1990). Toward a Multidimensional Model of Entrepreneurship: The Case of Achievement & The Entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice 14(3):39- 54.

Kao, R.W.Y., Kao, K.R., & Kao, R.R. (2002). Entrepreneurism For The Market Economy. London: Imperial College Press.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H.J., Mahdei, K.N., Lans, T., Chizari, M., Mulder, M. (2015). Testing The Relationship Between Personality Characteristics, Contextual Factors & Entrepreneurial Intentions in a Developing Country.

Kavitha, R., Anantharaman, R. N., & Sharmila, J. (2008). Motivational Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Decision: A Comparison Between Malaysian Women Entrepreneurs & Women Non-Entrepreneurs. Communications of the IBIMA. 2: 85–89.

Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., Schade, C., (2007). I Think I Can, I Think I Can: Overconfidence & Entrepreneurial Behaviour. Journal of Economic Psychology. 28(4): 502-527.

Koh, H.C. (1996). Testing Hypotheses of Entrepreneurial Characteristics. Journal of Managerial Psychology,11(3):12-25.

Krueger N.F., Reilly M. & Carsrud, A.L. (2000). Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15:411-532.

Krueger, N.F. (1993). Impact of Prior Entrepreneurial Exposure on Perceptions of New Venture Feasibility & Desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(1):5-21.

Krueger, N.F. (2000). The Cognitive Infrastructure of Opportunity Emergence. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 1:5-23.

Krueger, N.F. (2007). What Lies Beneath? The Experiential Essence of Entrepreneurial Thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31(1):123-138.

Krueger, N.F., & Brazeal, D., (1994). Entrepreneurial Potential & Potential Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 18(3):91-104.

Krueger, N.F., Liñán, F. & Nabi, G. (2013). Cultural Values & Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal, 25(9-10):703- 707.

Kuratko, D. F. & R. M. Hodgetts (2004). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process & Practice. Ohio: Thomson Learning.

Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Education: Development, Trends & Challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 29(5):577-597.

Kuratko, D. F., & Hodgetts, R. M. (1995). Entrepreneurship: A Contemporary Approach. Ft. Worth, Texas: Dryden Press/Harcourt Brace & Co.

Lee, D., & Tsang, E., (2001). The Effects of Entrepreneurial Personality, Background & Network Activities on Venture Growth. Journal of Management Studies, 38(4):583- 02.

Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Foo, M. D., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Influence of Organizational & Individual Factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1):124-136.
Lee, S. M., Chang, D., & Lim, S. B. (2005). Impact of Entrepreneurship Education: A Comparative Study of the U.S. & Korea. International Entrepreneurship & Management Journal, 1(1):27-43.

Liñán, F. & Chen, Y. (2009). Development & Cross-Cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 33(3):593-617.

Liñán, F. (2004). Intention-Based Models of Entrepreneurship Education. Piccolla Impresa / Small Business, 3:11-35.

Liñán, F. (2005). Development & Validation of an Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ). IntEnt05 Conference, Guildford (United Kingdom). 10-13.
Liñán, F and Fayolle, A. (2015). A Systematic Literature Review on Entrepreneurial Intentions: Citations, Thematic Analyses and the Research Agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 11 (4), 907-933.

Linan, F., Rodriguez-Cohard, J. C. & Rueda-Cantuche, J. M. (2005). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention Levels. Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association, Amsterdam.

Liñán, F., Rodríguez-Cohard, J.C., & Rueda-Cantuche, J.M. (2010). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention Levels: A Role for Education. International Entrepreneurship & Management Journal, 7(2):195-218.

Manikutty, S., Anuradha, N.S., & Hansen, K. (2007). Does Culture Influence Learning Styles in Higher Education? International Journal of Learning & Change, 2(1):70-87.

Mohammad, I., Shaiful, A., K., Mahmod, O.H., Kamaruzaman, J., Kamsol, M., K.,

Mohd Fauzi, M.J., Yahaya, I., Tih, S. & Poon, J.M.L. (2007). Entrepreneurship & Business Competitiveness, Fakulti Perniagaan dan Ekonomi, UKM Bangi, Bangi, Selangor.

Nabi, G., Holden, R. (2008). Graduate entrepreneurship: Intentions, educations, education and training. Education and Training, 50(7), 545-551.

Paço, A., Ferreira, J., Raposo, M., Rodrigues, R. & Dinis, A. (2011a). Behaviours & Entrepreneurial Intention: Empirical Findings about Secondary Students. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9(1):20-38.

Paço, A., Ferreira, J., Raposo, M., Rodrigues, R. & Dinis, A. (2011b). Entrepreneurial Intention among Secondary Students: Findings from Portugal. International Journal of Entrepreneurship & Small Business, 13(1):92-106.

Ramayah, T., & Harun, Z. (2005). Entrepreneurial Intention among the Students of Universiti Sains Malaysia. International Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship, 1:8-20.

Rozihana, S.Z. (2009). Entrepreneurial Intention among Malaysian Undergraduates. International Journal of Business & Management. 4 (10): 54-60.

Samuel, Y.A. Ernest, K. & Awuah, J.B. (2013). An Assessment of Entrepreneurship Intention Among Sunyani Polytechnic Marketing Students. International Review of Management and Marketing. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013, pp.37-49

Schlaegel, C., & Koenig, M. (2014). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intent: A Meta- Analytic Test & Integration of Competing Models. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice Special Issue: Evidence-Based Entrepreneurship, 38(2):291-332.

Shariff, A.M., Hasan, N.F.H.N., Mohamad, Z., & Jusoff, K. (2010). The Relationship Between Active Teaching & Learning with Graduate’s Entrepreneurial Intention & Interest. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(1):283-294.

Tan, J. (2002). Culture, Nations, & Entrepreneurial Strategic Orientations: Implications For An Emerging Economy, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 26(4):95-111.

Tubbs, M.E., & Ekeberg, S.E. (1991). The Role of Intentions In Work Motivation: Implications For Goal-Setting Theory & Research. Academy of Management Review. 14:361-384.
Veciana, J. M., Aponte M., & Urbano, D. (2005). University Students’ Attitudes Towards Entrepreneurship: A Two Countries Comparison. International Entrepreneurship & Management Journal, 1:165-182.

Wei-Loon K., Sa’aria, J.R., Majid, I.A. & Ismail, K. (2012). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among Millennial Generation. Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Society, 40:197-208.

Wiklund, J. & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial Orientation & Small Business Performance Intention among Millennial Generation. Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology: A Configurational Approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 2:71-91.

Zain, Z.M., Akram, A.M., Ghani, E.K. (2010). Entrepreneurial Intention among Malaysian Business Students. Canadian Social Science, 6(3). 34-44.

Zampetakis, L.A., & Moustakis, V. (2006). Linking Creativity with Entrepreneurial Intentions. A Structural Approach. The International Entrepreneurship & Management Journal, 2(3). 413- 428.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S.E., Lumpkin, G.T. (2010). The Relationship of Personality to Entrepreneurial Intentions & Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Management, 36(2):381-404.
How to Cite
Mwange, A. (2018). A Critical Review of Antecedents of Entrepreneurship Intention. IJRDO - Journal of Business Management, 4(9), 28-50. https://doi.org/10.53555/bm.v4i9.2528